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must be envisaged in relation to the whole historical
scene, so that one can be aware of the context in which
it occurred; the view that apart from court and ca&p
and government department there was a history to tell
which was the story of ordinary men, and there was
survey to be made of the broad expanse of England;
the view that historical characters were to be under-
stood by a kind of internal penetration, by the exercise
of imaginative sympathy, and by an extension of the art
of seeing oneself in another's place; the view that the
story of intimate, everyday things has an interest and a
certain importance in one's reconstruction of the past;
the view that Renaissance Italy must be apprehended as
a different kind of world from Anglo-Saxbn England or
nineteenth-century Serbia—all these things have gained
much from the historical novelist, because in a narrative
of everyday life the historical novelist could not possibly
escape'"the problem they presented. On the other hand,
the scholar, the antiquarian, the compiler and the
analyst had often been able to avoid these issues to a
considerable degree. Before Macaulay, the French
historian, Thierry, had learned from Scott the difference
between an imaginatiYe appropriation of the past and a
mere dry erudite compilation. And if the Romantic
movement went too far and led to aberrations—led, for
example, to visions of a medieval world that could never
have had any existence—one must not imagine that the
mental exercises that were involved in the romantic
endeavour were without their significance in the develop-
ment of historical study.

In two of the prefaces to his novels Sir Walter Scott